Vulvovaginitis - swelling and discomfort in the vagina

Vulvovaginitis – swelling and discomfort in the vagina

Vulvovaginitis is an inflammatory disease of the labia and vagina in women, which is caused by sexually transmitted infections. Among the most common causes is infection with the herpes simplex virus type 2 and papillomavirus with a complication in the form of warts.

Chlamydial infections and their specific chlamydial warts also lead to the development of vulvovaginitis. Of the bacteria, the best-known causative agents are Staphylococcus aureus, Nysseria, and gonorrheal bacteria. Candidiasis and trichomonas vaginalis are the next most common causes of vulvovaginitis.

Among the non-infectious causes of the disease are traumatic injuries – bodily injuries after gross sexual intercourse and perversion, as well as the ingestion of foreign bodies, which occurs mainly in children and in women with high promiscuity, resorting to more abstract forms of sexual intercourse. self-satisfaction.

Other common causes are allergic manifestations after contact with drugs to which there is a pronounced sensitivity. These are most often antiseptic solutions used for preventive purposes, contraceptives, and cosmetics – soap, detergents, and others. Synthetic underwear and commonly used laundry chemicals are other common causes of allergic vulvovaginitis.

Vulvovaginitis can be a complication after infection with lichen planus, lichen sclerosis, aphthosis, or psoriasis.

The anatomical structure of the female genital tract is often a pretext for the penetration of infections from the external genital tract through the internal into the endometrium of the uterus, and from there into the intraperitoneal space. The main and only protection against the penetration of bacteria in a woman is the natural barrier function of the biochemical flora of the vagina. An important role is played by the strongly acidic pH of the female reproductive part of the body, which reaches values up to 4 and does not allow the development of external pathogenic bacteria. The central role is played by special acidophilic lactobacilli, which are 95% natural defenders against external invaders.

This natural barrier mechanism can only be broken in two ways!

This protective function can be impaired by the massive introduction of highly pathogenic microorganisms or damage to the lactobacilli flora in the vagina, as a result of some hormonal disorders – such as estrogen deficiency, which reduces the main substrate of natural bacteria – glycogen. Another way to damage the natural barrier is the long-term use of antibiotics and hormonal drugs, which causes dysbacteriosis and often progresses to the development of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

The clinical picture is specific. There are characteristic vaginal discharges that have a specific color, smell, and texture. With abundant exudation, the secret flows out and wets the labia, pinches, and stains the linen. There is inflammation of the mucous membrane and swelling in the area of the external labia, burning, and severe pain.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of the collection of vaginal secretions and microbiological examination. Observe under a microscope with staining for GRAMS or methylene blue. Giemsa staining is also used.

Treatment is carried out using protocols of conservative therapy. Apply topical preparations with clindamycin cream or vaginal tablets with clotrimazole. Oral therapy includes taking clindamycin, acyclovir, valacyclovir – depending on the viral genesis of the disease, and metronidazole tablets.

Leave a Reply